Summary of the research Work: The first 10 years were dedicated to semiconductor physics and technologyparticularly optical, electro-optical and photoconducting properties. The research was carried out on ternary and multinary compounds. The details and published work appeared in the books mentioned earlier. After 1995, the research was focused on nano-science applied to medicine (conventional and acupuncture) For this purpose, Atomic force microscopy, Multiple beam interference confocal microscopy, Raman imaging etc. have been used. The notable papers are given below. The special technique namely multiple beam interference microscopy is developed for detection, imaging and investigating nano structural morphological details of organelles of living cells and tissues. It is found to be the most suitable and simple procedure to view nano structural details. By using this approach,investigation was carried out for Ameba, Candida Albicans, Toxoplasma Gondii, chondrocyctes , living spermatozoon and nano structural details have been reported. As the system permits to view in living conditions, it is possible to examine the effect of external parameters ( like electric field) on the variation of internal structural details of a bio- system. Such work has been carried out for Entamoeba histolytica. The present system is unique for such investigation. In recent years scientists have understood the importance oftechnology of nanoscience and it is applicable in several fields. Chinese have used some aspects of it in Acupuncture practice without knowing the basic concepts behind it. In the last decade a scientific base has been provided to this ancient and useful technique. It is revealed that in several systems voltage gated ion channels like Na +, K+ and Ca+ whose dimensions are in the range of nanometers and their effective functioning range is even much less than this play a crucial role. One of the fundamental use of this technique is relief from pains. In this case, the role of Na + is very important and reduces the action potential associated with pains. This is because the needles at a particular points attracts Na + and hence reduces their concentration. As the flow of ions in the membrane varies with concentration of sodium ions in an exponential manner, the effect is noticeable and pains are reduced. Electroacupuncture is found to be useful for helping Alzheimer patients as the electric field helps to detach amyloid peptides from the neuron membrane. Detachment mechanism is at nanoscale. Similarly, electroacupuncture is an operative technique for lowering blood pressure and treating some cardiovascular diseases. By this technique, calcium channels, particularly L type, are blocked. As Ca+ channels are voltage gated, at low frequency and for certain range of current, the effect is appreciable and it helps to reduce the blood pressure. In addition to these, the technique is effective even for lung diseases. Thus, nanoscience is related with several irregularities in human body and it is tackled with acupuncture method even though , acupoints are not fixed with nanoscale precision. Even though, theoretical base has been provided by considering nano-structural details, a systematic experimental investigation is needed. In the last decade, research was dedicated to some challenging and controversial topics in fundamentals of optics and electricity like dual nature of photon, Maxwell’s equation, Gauss’s law , Huygens wave fronts, mechanism of diffraction and finally the nature of the electric field. Important papers are cited below. Only the presence of vibrating elements in space helps to understand several unsolved problems in optics, electricity and wave propagation mechanism. Recent research gives rise to an emerging field namely “sub nano structural aspects of vibrating strings in a compact form of liquid”
Selected publications (from about 150, according to noteworthy aspects): 1) N.V. Joshi “Energy conversion from the vacuum field to electro magnetic fields” Physics Essays, Vol. 26 (1), 61-67, 2013. 2) N;V. Joshi “ Fresh view for Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic wave propagation” Journal of Modern Physics, 6,921-926, 2015 3) N.V.Joshi “Gausss la: Re-Examination and its consequences” Journal of Modern Physics 6, 2035-2039, 2015 4) N.V.Joshi “ The nature, origin and propagation of electric field : A new insight to fundamental physics” Journal of Modern Physics,7,1132-1137, 2016 5) N.V. Joshi ” Mechanism for electrostatic Repulsion or Attraction” World Journal of Mechanics, 3, 307-309, 2013 6) N.V. Joshi “ A fresh outlook for Fresnel diffraction ” Optik. 124, 6122-6125, 2013 7) N.V. .Joshi Comments on “The dual nature of photons” SPIE., Vol. 7727 doi:10.1117/12.849592, 2010 8) N.V. Joshi Re-evaluation of “ the propagation of radiation in the spherical wave form”. Journal of Optical Communication, Vol. 33 ( 1) , 57-59 , 2012 9) N.V. Joshi, M. Doria and H. Medina HIV Detection by optical spectroscopy SPIE, Vol 4432, p.288, (2001) 10) N.V. Joshi H. Medina and J.A. Osuna . Archiv. Jour. of Andrology. Ultrastructural pathology of varicocele spermatozoa by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Arch Androl.;47: 143-52. 2001 11) N.V. Joshi, H. Medina and A. Osuna. Ultra structural pathology of sperm by using atomic force microscopy. Fertility and Sterility .75,961-65,2001 12) N.V. JOSHI. H. MEDINA AND A. OSUNA Ultrastructural Investigation of Human Spermatozoon by using Atomic Force Microscope. ARCHIVES OF ANDROLOGY.44: pp. 51-57,2.000. 13) N.V. JOSHI . H. MEDINA Multiple beam interference confocal microscopy : tool for morphological investigation of living spermatozoon. MICROSCOPY AND ANALYSIS 6, pp 471-477,2000. 14) N.V. JOSHI, H. MEDINA , I URDANETTA AND E. BARREUTA In vivo Nanoimaging and Ultrastruscture of Entmoeba Histolitica by Atomic Force Microscopy. EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY. 93. pp 95-100, 1999 15) NARAHARI JOSHI, VIRGINIA JOSHI, PASTOR QUINTERO AND A. OSUNA. Assessment of Glucose Contains in Diabetic Patients by Examining the Core of Hair SPIE, 3595,pp.243-247 ,1999. 16) N.V. JOSHI . H. MEDINA Multiple beam interference confocal microscopy : tool for morphological investigation of living spermatozoon. MICROSCOPY AND ANALYSIS 6, pp 471-477, 2000 17) Raman Spectroscopy and Raman Imaging for early detection of Cancer SPIE .5325, 89-95 (2004) 18) N.V. Joshi, H.Medina and P. Tuci Effect of an electric field on the motility of Entamboeba histolitica examined by multiple beam interference microscopy. Experimental Parasitology 97, 179-85 ,2001 19) N.V. Joshi H. Medina, J.M.Barboza, Gladys Colantuoni and Maritza Quintero Detection imaging and kinetics of sub micron organelles of chondrocytes by Multiple Beam Interference microscopy. Cells and Tissue SPIE, 5324, 145-150 (2004). 20) N.V. Joshi and H. Araque Neurophysiologic Basis for the relief of Human pain by Acupuncture. Electro- acupuncture and Therapeutic Research. Vol 34, No 3, 165-174,2009 . 21) N.V. Joshi, X. Paez and H. Araque “ Electroacupuncture Effects of the disintegration of beta amyloid sheets: Its application to Alzheimer’s Disease. Medical Acupuncture, Vol. 24, No3, 145-51, 2012 22) N.V. Joshi and H. Araque Blockade of calcium channels by electro acupuncture for Hypertension treatment. Medical Acupuncture , Vol. 22 No. 4, 243-247, 2010 23) N.V.JOSHI Simulation Study of Transient Behaviour of Photoconductivity.PHYS REV., B. 43: 9935, 1991. 24) N.V.JOSHI Analytical Approach Towards Transient Phenomena in photoconductors. PHYS. REV. B 27: 6272-6278, 1983. 25) N.V.JOSHI, VAN DER VLEUTEN, WILLEM & J.H.WOLTER. Detection of defect activated phonon modes in sub-band transitions of GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well structures. JPN. J. APPL. PHYS., 32: 722-724, 1993. 26) N.V.JOSHI,, VAN DER VLEUTEN, WILLEM, WOLTER, J.H. & A.M. GERRITS. Detection of a combination of defect activated phonon modes in AlAs/GaAs superlattice structure by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. INFRARED PHYS. TECHNOL., 35: 41- 45, 1994. 27) N.V.JOSHI, V.O. de JOSHI, N. RODRIGUEZ, and LUIS HERNANADEZ. Fluorescence Microscopic Spectral Study of Fluorescein and some Amino Acids. SPIE 2386 (special issue of Biomedical Optics):303-309, 1995. 28) N.V.JOSHI AND JOSÉ GOYO RIVAS. Optical and Morphological propertiesof hair of patients of Chediak – higashi syndrome. SPIE Vol 3251,pp229-234, 1998 29) N. V. JOSHI. New Kind of Noise in Photoconductors". PHYS. REV. B. 32:1009, 1985.